Wednesday, December 11, 2019
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of various teaching methods used for teaching students at secondary level, i search about perceptions of best and effective teaching methods and the reason for that. I searched that most of the students rated lecture method as the best teaching method. Becuse of the teacher provides all knowledge related to topic, time saving, students attentively listen lecture and take notes. The group discussion was the second best method of teaching because of more participation of students, the learning is more effective, the students donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to rely on rote learning, and this method develops creativity among students. To make an effective learning methods first Remember that your students are supposed to be the beneficiaries of your communication. Dont make too many assumptions about your students. Ã¢â¬Å" This Research indicates also that students are the most qualified sources to report on the extent to which the learning experience was productive, informative, satisfying, or worthwhile. We will write a custom essay sample on Effective ways of teaching method or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page While opinions on these matters are not direct measures of teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness, they are legitimate indicators of student satisfaction, and there is substantial research linking student satisfaction to effective teaching. This research aim to tell you some methods on how the student may learned through effective learning strategies that the teacher may use. Teaching strategies refer to methods used to help students learn the desired course contents and be able to develop achievable goals in the future. Teaching strategies identify the different available learning methods to enable them to develop the right strategy to deal with the target group identified. Assessment of the learning capabilities of students provides a key pillar in development of a successful teaching strategy. BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Danielson, Charlotte Ã¢â¬â Path ways to teaching series Merrill/Pearson,2010 Ã¢â¬â Education Frey, Nancy phD Ã¢â¬â the effective teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s guide M. E. S. ELIZABETH Ã¢â¬â methods of teaching english English language Ã¢â¬â 2004 B. INTERNET Clas. web. nthu. edu. tw/esfiles Effective teaching methods I. INTRODUCTION II. BODY OF CONTENT A. Why is it important ? B. Teaching Methods b1. Lecture Methods b2. Discussion Methods b3. Role Play b4. Case Study b5. Brain Storming b6. Assignment Methods IV. RECOMENDATION V. BIBLIOGRAPHY EFFECTIVE WAYS OF TEACHING METHODS AT SECONDARY LEVEL. II. Why is it important ? Teaching is extraordinarily important, complex, and demanding work,and a teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s workday consists of making hundreds of decisions that promote high-level student learning. The work is and should be daunting. Grounded and concise, this first edition text provides readers with theory-based practices that will illuminate the art and craft of teaching. The literature on teaching is crammed full of well researched ways that teachers can present content and skills that will enhance the opportunities for students to learn. It is equally filled with suggestions of what not to do in the classroom. However, there is no rule book on which teaching methods match up best to which skills and/or content that is being taught. Students often have little expertise in knowing if the method selected by an individual instructor was the best teaching method or just Ã¢â¬Å"a methodÃ¢â¬ or simply the method with which the teacher was most comfortable. There is much debate within the higher education community on how teaching or teaching effectiveness may be defined that is why this kind of research is important for them to have an idea how they will be able to conduct an effective teaching methods for their student. III. TEACHING METHODS LECTURE METHOD Lecture Method: A lecture is a talk or verbal presentation given by a lecturer,trainer or speaker to an audience. With all the advancement of training systems and computer technology, lecture method is still a backbone widely used in teaching and training at higher level of education. This method is economical, can be used for a large number of students, material can be covered in a structured manner and the teacher has a great control of time and material. A study conducted by Benson, L. , Schroeder, P. , Lantz, C. , and Bird, M (n. d. ). provides evidence that students may place greater emphasis on lecture material than on textbooks. Lecturing is not simply a matter of standing in front of a class and reciting what you know. The classroom lecture is a special form of communication in which voice, gesture, movement, facial expression, and eye contact can either complement or detract from the content. Teaching MethodsÃ¢â¬ stated strengths of lecture method that it presents factual material in direct, logical manner, contains experience which inspires, stimulates thinking to open discussion, and useful for large groups. Our findings also revealed that most of the students considered lecture as best method because according to opinion of students it creates new ideas, it is good for large class, develops creativity among students, teacher is experienced and has mastery on subject, explain all points and can answer all questions by students. Lecture gives the pupils training in listening and taking rapid notes. For Improving Lecture Methods. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lecture material should be stimulating and thought provoking. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Information should be delivered dramatically by using example to make it memorable. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The teacher needs to use questions throughout the lecture to involve students in the learning process and to check their comprehension. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Reinforce learning by using visual supports like transparencies, flip charts, whiteboard/ black board etc. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Teacher should take feedback of students to improve lecture meth Ã¢â¬ ¢ DISCUSSION It is a free verbal exchange of ideas between group members or teacher and students. For effective discussion the students should have prior knowledge and information about the topic to be discussed. discussion as, pools ideas and experiences from group, an allows everyone to participate in an active process. Our study also revealed that the students rated group discussion (class discussion) as the second best method by giving reasons that; it has more participation of students, the learning is more effective, the students donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to rely on rote learning, every student give his/ her opinion, and this method develops creativity among students. For Improving Discussion Methods Ã¢â¬ ¢ The teacher should spend sufficient time in preparing the process and steps of discussion. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Different aspects of the topic and the parameters should be selected for the focused discussion. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sufficient time should be allotted to discuss all the issues. At the same time students should know the time limit to reach a conclusion. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The teacher in the beginning should introduce the topic, the purpose of discussion, and the students participating in discussion. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Before the start of discussion, background information about the topic should be provided. Ã¢â¬ ¢ There is a need to include questions to provide direction. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Relaxed environment should be created to foster the process of discussion Ã¢â¬ ¢ Teacher after opening the discussion should play the role of a facilitator involving every one and at the end should summarize the discussion. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Encourage students listen otherÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view and then evaluate their own. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Teacher should give value to all studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ opinions and try not to allow his/her own difference of opinion, prevent communication and debate. Ã¢â¬ ¢ROLE PLAY occurs when participants take on differentiated roles in a simulation. These may be highly prescribed, including biographical details, and even personality, attitudes and beliefs; or loosely indicated by an outline of the function or task. These techniques have already demonstrated their applicability to a wide range of learners, subjects and levels. It is a memorable and enjoyable learning method. To gain maximum benefits from this method, the incidents selected for enactment should be as realistic as the situation allows. For Improving Role Play Method Before the role play, the teacher should brief participants about the roles they will play, give them time for preparation, confirm confidentiality of role play, and ask participants to behave naturally. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Teacher should select brief observers about their roles. Ã¢â¬ ¢ During the role play, the teacher must keep quiet, listen take notes, avoid cutting role play short, but give time warning if previously agreed. The teacher should be prepared for some action if participants dry up and can intervene as a last resort. Ã¢â¬ ¢ After the role play, the teacher thanks participants, ask for feed back from lead participants, take comments from observers, ask other participants to comment, Ã¢â¬ ¢ The teacher should use role names not those of participants, summarize, drawing out learning points, leaving the participants with positive comments and feelings. Ã¢â¬ ¢CASE STUDY Primarily developed in business and law contexts, case method teaching can be productively used in liberal arts, engineering, and education. This method is basically used to develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills, as well as to present students with real-life situations. The students are presented with a record set of circumstances based on actual event or an imaginary situation and they are asked, -to diagnose particular problem only. -to diagnose problem provide solution. -to give reasons implications of action after providing both problem solution. It is a time consuming method and sometimes the case does not actually provide real experience. It could be in-conclusive, and insufficient information can lead to inappropriate results. At the end, the students want to know the right answer by the teacher. The role of the teacher in conducting the case study should be to, -read the case and determine the key problems faced by the decision maker, -determine the data required to analyze the problems and for a synthesis into solutions, -develop, analyze, and compare alternative solutions, and recommend a course of action. For Improving Case Study Methods Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cases should be brief, well-written, reflect real issues, and open to a number of conflicting responses. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Students should work in group to prepare a written report and/or a formal presentation of the case. Ã¢â¬ ¢BRAINSTORMING It is a loosely structured form of discussion for generating ideas without participants embroiled in unproductive analysis. It is a very useful technique for problem solving, decision making, creative thinking and team building. It develops listening skills. For Improving Brainstorming Method Ground rules for running brainstorming Methods: Ã¢â¬ ¢ There should be no criticism and the wild ideas should be encouraged and recorded without evaluation. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Emphasis should be placed on quantity of ideas and not the quality. Ã¢â¬ ¢ There is a need of equal participation of members. Ã¢â¬ ¢ It can be unfocused so teacher should know how to control discussion and facilitate issues. Ã¢â¬ ¢ It works well in small group. Ã¢â¬ ¢ASSIGNMENT METHOD Written assignments help in organization of knowledge, assimilation of facts and better preparation of examinations. It emphasizes on individual pupil work and the method that helps both teaching and learning processes, For Improving Assignment Method Ã¢â¬ ¢ Teacher should describe the parameters of the topic of assignment. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Fully explain assignments so that students know how to best prepare. When the inevitable question, Will we be tested on this? arises, make sure your answer includes not only a yes or no, but a because . . . Ã¢â¬ ¢ Davis (1993) suggests that Ã¢â¬Å"Give assignments and exams that recognize students diverse backgrounds and special interests. For example, a faculty member teaching a course on medical and health training offered students a variety of topics for their term papers, including one on alternative healing belief systems. A faculty member in the social sciences gave students an assignment asking them to compare female-only, male-only, and male-female work groups. Ã¢â¬ IV. RECOMENDATION Ã¢â¬ ¢PARENT To evaluate teaching effectiveness different methods can be used including peer review, self-evaluation, teaching portfolios, it can also be done in home in the youngest children , to prepare for schooling. Ã¢â¬ ¢STUDENTS student achievement and studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ ratings of teaching methods used by their teachers. students provide anonymous feedback at the end of each course they complete, faculty and will be used to improve the teaching and learning in the course otherwise they are unlikely to take the rating process seriously Ã¢â¬ ¢TEACHERS Teachers need to educate students in effective ways of giving precise feedback that addresses specific aspects of their learning experience. Teachers need to continually assure students throughout the semester that the ratings will be used for productive changes in teaching/ learning process and that there will be no chance of retribution to the students.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Sample Essay for Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Quoting So That Nobody Has To Go To School If They Don't Want To by Roger Sipher A decline in standardized test scores is but the most recent indicator that American education is in trouble. One reason for the crisis is that present mandatory-attendance laws force many to attend school who have no wish to be there. Such children have little desire to learn and are so antagonistic to school that neither they nor more highly motivated students receive the quality education that is the birthright of every American. The solution to this problem is simple: Abolish compulsory-attendance laws and allow only those who are committed to getting an education to attend. This will not end public education. Contrary to conventional belief, legislators enacted compulsory-attendance laws to legalize what already existed. William Landes and Lewis Solomon, economists, found little evidence that mandatory-attendance laws increased the number of children in school. They found, too, that school systems have never effectively enforced such laws, usually because of the expense involved. There is no contradiction between the assertion that compulsory attendance has had little effect on the number of children attending school and the argument that repeal would be a positive step toward improving education. Most parents want a high school education for their children. Unfortunately, compulsory attendance hampers the ability of public school officials to enforce legitimate educational and disciplinary policies and thereby make the education a good one. Private schools have no such problem. They can fail or dismiss students, knowing such students can attend public school. Without compulsory attendance, public schools would be freer to oust students whose academic or personal behavior undermines the educational mission of the institution. Has not the noble experiment of a formal education for everyone failed? While we pay homage to the homily, "You can lead a horse to water but you can't make him drink," we have pretended it is not true in education. Ask high school teachers if recalcitrant students learn anything of value. Ask teachers if these students do any homework. Quite the contrary, these students know they will be passed from grade to grade until they are old enough to quit or until, as is more likely, they receive a high school diploma. At the point when students could legally quit, most choose to remain since they know they are likely to be allowed to graduate whether they do acceptable work or not. Abolition of archaic attendance laws would produce enormous dividends. First, it would alert everyone that school is a serious place where one goes to learn. Schools are neither day-care centers nor indoor street corners. Young people who resist learning should stay away; indeed, an end to compulsory schooling would require them to stay away. Second, students opposed to learning would not be able to pollute the educational atmosphere for those who want to learn. Teachers could stop policing recalcitrant students and start educating. Third, grades would show what they are supposed to: how well a student is learning. Parents could again read report cards and know if their children were making progress. Fourth, public esteem for schools would increase. People would stop regarding them as way stations for adolescents and start thinking of them as institutions for educating America's youth. Fifth, elementary schools would change because students would find out early they had better learn something or risk flunking out later. Elementary teachers would no longer have to pass their failures on to junior high and high school. Sixth, the cost of enforcing compulsory education would be eliminated. Despite enforcement efforts, nearly 15 percent of the school-age children in our largest cities are almost permanently absent from school. Communities could use these savings to support institutions to deal with young people not in school. If, in the long run, these institutions prove more costly, at least we would not confuse their mission with that of schools. Schools should be for education. At present, they are only tangentially so. They have attempted to serve an all-encompassing social function, trying to be all things to all people. In the process they have failed miserably at what they were originally formed to accomplish. Example Summary, Paraphrase, and Quotation from the Essay: Example summary: Roger Sipher makes his case for getting rid of compulsory-attendance laws in
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Should our state adopt a right-to-work law? This is a hot topic that continues to be contested all over the United States. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the right-to-work law is good for the state of Michigan. If ever passed in Michigan, the right-to-work law would guarantee that no person could be compelled, as a condition of employment, to join or to pay dues to a labor union. Supporters of right-to-work laws point to research that say that right-to-work laws have a positive effect on states that adopt them while opponents of right-to-work laws do just the opposite. On February 1, 2012, the state of Indiana became AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s 23rd right-to-work state. Supporters of the right-to-work laws say that Ã¢â¬Å"Michigan may need to adopt such a law to better compete for jobs and talentÃ¢â¬ (Lafaive, 2012). Further supporting this issue Thomas Holmes authored a study that Ã¢â¬Å"examined manufacturing employment in border counties of neighboring states where one state had right-to-work protections and the other did not. We will write a custom essay sample on Right to Work Laws or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page He found manufacturing employment as a percentage of county population increased by one-third in the counties within the right-to-work states compared to those in the non-right-to-work states. In a 2010 study by economist Richard Vedder, an adjunct scholar with the Mackinac Center, found that Ã¢â¬Å"40 percent of Americans lived in right-to-work states in 2007, up from 28. 5 percent in 1970. Moreover, Census data indicates that from April 2000 to July 2008, more than 4. 7 million people moved from non-right-to-work states to a right-to-work stateÃ¢â¬ (Lafaive, 2012). These are only a few examples of external factors and findings that influence and impact the work forces and labor unions. While I have explained the ideas behind the supporters of these laws, there are also opponents. In a more recent 2012 study from Michael Hicks, an adjunct scholar with the Mackinac Center, Ã¢â¬Å"found that from 1929 through 2005, the presence of a right-to-work law did not play a role in state industrial composition or income from manufacturingÃ¢â¬ (Lafaive, 2012). Opponents of right-to-work laws contend the laws set in place lead to lower wages, hurt unions, lower standard of living, and sometimes contest that they are morally wrong for allowing people to receive union representation without actually paying for it. Douglas McCabe, a professor of management at GeorgetownÃ¢â¬â¢s McDonough School of Business states, Ã¢â¬Å"If more states pass right-to-work, unions will lose members. He goes on to saying that it would discourage people from signing authorization cards to be able to hold a vote on unionizingÃ¢â¬ (Olson, 2012). CONCLUSION: Ã¢â¬Å"Each side of the right-to-work argument cites studies to back their views, but a uniform economic society is hard to find because individual states have their own, unique economic circumstances, such as availability of skilled workers and access to markets and infrastructureÃ¢â¬ (Olson, 2012).
Sunday, November 24, 2019
buy custom Emily DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Interpretation of Death through Her Poetry essay Introduction Emily Dickinson uses rhyme, tone, metaphors and imagery to communicate her concepts about the ambiguity of death through her famous poem I Heard a Fly Buzz - When I died- (Cameron 275). People often formulate mixed beliefs, thoughts and conceptions about death depending on the culture of their communities. The topic of this poem portrays the experience of anxiety, fear and uncertainty as to the things to expect after death. At some point in life, every person is interested in acquiring about death and dying after the death of a family member, a friend or a spouse. Death is a part of life that all living things must go through but the notion put on death makes the last moments of life hard for the departing souls including the people left behind. This poem draws the attention of a reader because it is not directed to the people in the poem but the audience reading it. This means that the poem gives the reader a glimpse of the different feelings people experience when they are dying an d how uncertain they are about eternal life. Emily Dickinson uses a fly as a figure to represent dying and death. Flies are always associated with decaying matter but in deeper meaning, it represents the angel of death or the grim-ripper who comes to take the soul of the dying writer. The poem is from the perspective of a death poet and implying that everyone will end up in the same situation at the end of life. Thesis statement: This poem will discuss the deeper meaning of the metaphors and words in Emily Dickinsons poem, the modern concepts of death and the reality of death. Interpretation of the Poem In the poem, Emily Dickinson uses 16 lines which are divided into four stanzas to describe her final moments on the earth. The poet uses past tense in describing what the speaker experienced during the dying process. The death in this poem is painless but the notions placed on death and life after death make the process of dying more dreadful. The first line of the poem introduces the fly and death, both of which play principal role throughout the entire poem. The Stillness in the Room- (line 2) describes the description of the environment where the speaker is dying. The speaker is in a quiet somber setting dying on her deathbed (Cameron 275). In the next two lines, she compares the mood in her room as that of a storm that shakes the environment. The heaves used in the poem suggest that great turmoil will ensue the moment of dying and that more confusion will follow. The stillness in the room shows how the people are watching her during the dying moment is silent. The eyes beside had wrung them dry- (line 5) describes the mood of the people around her. They are exhausted and overwhelmed with grief from witnessing the speaker dies on her deathbed. In line 6, the watchers of the dying speaker are holding their breaths waiting for the moment of death. For that Last Onset, when the King- (line 7) suggests that the speaker and her watchers are preparing for death, which is the end of life (life) and according to Christianity, death signifies a new beginning in eternal life (Onset) (Ed. Stanford 118). The king refers to God, death or Christ who comes to take away the soul of death as indcated in line 8. In the third stanza, the speaker accepts her situation on the reality of death and is ready to die. I willed my Keepsakes, Signed away (line 9) suggests that the speaker cuts all her attachments to her family and friends and draws to the climax of death. As the speaker is waiting for an extravagant entrance of God or Christ, a fly that could suggest Satan or death interrupts her line of thoughts or concepts on death. In-depth meaning could suggest that the fly often associated with death and decay has presented itself to take the soul of the speaker to the underworld where it belongs or it could literally mean that an annoying fly interrupted her thoughts about the dying moment. The last stanza indicates the last moments of the speaker using the fly as a figure of death. With Blue, uncertain stumbling Buzz (line 13) suggests that the speaker is confused, uncertain and insecure about life after death because she confuses the colour of the fly (Ed. Stanford 118). The angel of death tak es center stage of the last moment of dying by coming between life and death. Eyes are always considered the windows of the soul in human life, so when the speaker said that the windows failed, it implies that her eyes closed, shutting the light of the day and life out of her life. Modern Concepts of Death in Relation to the Poem Writers in the 19th century lived in the society where Christianity was the dominant religion. This contributes to the form of writing Emily Dickinson and other famous poets adopted when referring to death (Cameron 275). They all believed in life after death due to their faith in religion. The modern world has evolved and people are divided in terms of religion, race and culture. Christians have maintained their stiff belief in life after death where people are advised to be practice righteousness so that when they are in their deathbeds, Gods angels will take their souls and they will ascend to heaven. The sinners are sent to the underworld where Satan will subject them to eternal suffering. Scientists believe that the death of a person signifies the end of life both in physical and spiritual form. Most scientists and believers of science contribute to the enhancement of the science by donating their organs or the whole body after death. Egyptians and other African cultures believe in reincarnation where the body of death is restored in its usual form because a newborn in the community is believed to have risen form the dead in form of a new and young body of a child. The Indian community believes that cremation will make the dead occupy the seas and oceans after their ashes from the incinerators are spread across water bodies. Reality of Death in Contemporary Society Emily Dickinson interpreted the reality of death in every human being through most of her poems but the famous one is I Heard a Fly Buzz - When I Died as she addresses the audience from beyond the grave about her struggle with death (Cameron 275). The fear of the unknown is what makes death a dreadful experience for people who are dying and those witnessing the ordeal. Cessation of life whether it is painful or painless creates an illusion of heaven and hell. People who are about to die receive prayers from religious elders because they believe that the journey to the afterlife is filled with trials and tribulations. Psychologists on the other hand have enjoyed a prosperous career in therapy and counseling people who are in grief because of the death of a loved one. People attend therapy to deal with impending death of a spouse in cases of terminal illness or fatal casualties in an accident, victims of violent crime or natural disasters. Some people want to know how to handle their own impending death in existence of long-term illnesses. Emily Dickinson shows how death brings grief in the community because people will not see, talk or touch the dead, which is a clear indication of what will happen to each human being alive (Cameron 275). The reality of death is now a common topic in the contemporary society. Causes of death include diseases, crimes, accidents, suicide and natural catastrophes that claim many lives in few hours. It is important for the reader to know what to expect when a member of the family, a friend or a spouse dies. The reaction to the loss of a loved one includes deep sorrow and denial but therapy before and after the loss of a loved one equips a person with self-supporting tools to handle any situation relating to death. Therapists advise their clients to view death as a rite of passage in all living things and to accept the reality of good and bad, happiness and sadness and finally life and death. Therapy on reality of death allows a person to develop a high emotional intelligence that acts as a life-support for all problems both internal and external which cause emotional pain that might lead to depression and suicide (Rogers 59). Accepting the reality of death is living in harmony with the environment, because if human beings were given immortality, the whole universe would be in turmoil in maintaining order and justice, creating living space and fending for food and water. Many people do not understand the concept of death in human life but it is as important as life because for the population to balance in the ecosystem, people must be born and die concurrently. When people accept the reality of death, they continue living even after experiencing great loss and accept that both life and death create uncertainty (Rogers 70). People create wills that will benefit the people who are left behind and it has become a common case where parents and spouses sign wills. This is beca use people have accepted the reality of death and that it can happen at any moment in time, just as the speaker in Emily Dickinsons poem did when she cut all her attachments from the world and allocated her possessions to her watchers. Conclusion Emily Dickinson used poems to interpret her view of death. In the poem I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died, she shows the audience the mood of the people around her when she was dying, the ideas and thoughts about the uncertainty of death. The poem is relevant to every person in the contemporary society because it shows how life and death are still ambiguous. Death is an unpleasant fact that every person must pass undergo and the only way to embrace nature at its best is to accept that it will claim all human beings at different periods. This poem shows that both life and death are vague and to live happily, people must accept the uncertainty. Buy custom Emily DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Interpretation of Death through Her Poetry essay
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Strategy Paper - Essay Example To analyze this phenomenon, WJ Wood had this to say i.e. "The Americans did not simply outlast the British in the Revolutionary War, but, won their independence by employing superior strategies, tactics and leadership".2 Wood was however, only half-correct because Britain, with its status as the world's prime conqueror and as a veteran of many major wars, was no stranger and in fact replete with superior strategies and wily tactics and was blessed with the best military leaders. Therefore, there must be other factors that went into the equation to produce Britain's shameful defeat. First consideration was the fact that Britain was waging a war in a land, more than 3,000 miles away and we can only conjecture that there would be problems of logistics and communication PM Lord North, Secretary of State George Germain) "never provided the timely guidance and the commanders in the field never furnished accurate enough predictions of what to expect and differed so much among themselves as to the proper course to pursue".3 A more formidable problem was the difficulty of sending transports of ammunitions, military equipment and troops just in time to stem the tide of a particular battle in Britain's favor. It also had to battle inclement weather and fierce winds. Second consideration, was the fact that Britain had to design a multi-pronged strategy to answer simultaneous threats that may divide the kingdom. The American rebellion was only one front. The possible invasion by France and Spain was another. The need to cohesively cement its hold on Canada, West Indies, Gibraltar and India was yet another. It was clear that these "limited the options available to the British"4 and not to mention divide the British forces. In sharp contrast, the colonists were waging a war in their own backyard. Thus, they enjoyed the advantage of a familiar terrain and a cooperative citizenry, called the militia, which is generally hostile to the British. The strategies and tactics may not be at par with British standards but they were well coordinated, controlled and centralized by the Continental Congress based in Philadelphia and later in Annapolis, Md. To finance the war, the Congress employed diplomatic and psychological strategy on France and Spain with successful results. The rest of the money was obtained through deft arm twisting of the populace i.e. loans; forced loans with certificates of indebtedness; levies; issuance of continental currency. In that age when cellphones, internet, two-way radios haven't seen the light of day, the colonists had the Committee of Safety, composed of mounted messengers of which Paul Revere was the most
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Managerial Discretion - Essay Example er, managers need to be able to exercise their own judgment in hiring decisions, strategic planning, effective administration and resource allocation decisions. The consequence of not allowing such discretion would be a lumbering organization that is unable to take nimble actions that can keep it competitive in a global marketplace. Absence of managerial discretion would lead to a heavily bureaucratized company that takes much more time to make and implement strategic decisions than its competitors and thus would fall by the wayside. At the same time, allowing managers to run amok with their own preferences can be equally dangerous by setting up a situation in which conflicting decisions are made at different levels of an organization that end up stalling progress. The effective organization strikes just the right balance by allowing a high degree of managerial discretion while instituting appropriate constraints to keep the business functioning effectively. Defining Discretion Key (1997) defines discretion as "a belief that individuals can influence their environment. The concept of discretion, originally borrowed from the judiciary, involves decision making that is guided by individual principles and beliefs unfettered by external control" (par. 13). Thus, discretion is necessarily a subjective determination that a particular manager has a range of options available to him/herself. Key (2002) further maintains that "Discretion is based on the belief that one has responses available with which to influence the environment. Individual perception influences whether or not an individual believes there are actions available to him or her" (par. 2). This subjective determination has been described as "perceived latitude of action." The concept of managerial discretion... The importance of managerial discretion to modern companies is substantial, and has long been recognized as such. Discretionary behavior by mangers is essential to the strategic operation of a company; but at the same time allowing unfettered discretion can be hugely detrimental to the well-being of a corporation, as evidenced by the scandals that have taken place in recent years in the United States and elsewhere. While managers must have the ability to analyze a situation and determine and appropriate course of action, there must be some guidelines Ã¢â¬â or constraints as it were Ã¢â¬â placed on that discretion in order to protect the company from these types of damaging developments. Several studies on the scope and limits of managerial discretion have found that there are several variables influencing and limiting the exercise of discretion in modern business. These include such factors as age, length of tenure, educational attainment, gender, locus of control, and organiza tional culture. Each of these factors has a direct impact on the extent to which managers feel free to exercise discretion, or not; and consequently they affect the success or failure of a business. Ultimately, managerial discretion is a critical balancing act for any business that seeks to compete successfully in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s global business environment.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Long Beach Municipal Cemetery - Essay Example hich is understood to have been developed as a graveyard for Bixby Ranch employees according to the information provided by the City of Long Beach official website. Despite of the presence of a Bixby Mausoleum on the site, none of the Bixby family members are said to have been buried there as the bodies of George and Helen Bixby were exhumed on February 27, 1923 and now lay in the Evergreen Cemetery, Los Angeles. The cemetery site is home to some standing headstones that date back to as early as 1900s, while a few flat headstones are also present, they have become so deteriorated over the passage of time that it is not quite possible to read the writing on them as the dates and names have become faded. Records suggest that the City of Long Beach assumed the responsibility of a majority of the groundÃ¢â¬â¢s maintenance on 10th of July, 1900, for which the Long Beach Cemetery Association was previously accountable for. As per the information provided in the book released by Questing Heirs Genealogical Society, INC., the first interment at the cemetery took place in 1878, which was of a 17-year-old boy named Milton F. Neece. Other famous internments at the cemetery apart from that of WillmoreÃ¢â¬â¢s are of U.S Congressman Alexander Hamilton Jones, who died on January, 29th, 1901, Amanda Ellen Wiley Harmon, a deaf inventor who died in 1933 and Grace Bush Eads, the first Long Beach school teacher who departed in 1944. It can be interpreted that the demographics of the community surrounding the cemetery have not gone through a substantial change over the past 50 years, with the racial makeup containing a majority of White population followed by African American members, according to the United States Census Bureau. Even though, diversity in the area does exist with Hispanic and Asian inhabitants it is unclear and inconclusive whether they constituted of a major part of the community around the time when the Long Beach Municipal Cemetery was established. However, indication of